Menstrual Problems in Adolescent Girls

Table of Contents

Adolescence is the period when a different type of changes occurs suddenly in the body and many questions and curiousness may arise all over the mind of the adolescents for those types of changes. The first thing they do is that they can’t understand or we can say that they can’t adjust themselves after the changes. Various changes like physical, mental, emotional may occur during adolescence. The main problem with the girls during adolescence is periods/menstruation. Many girls at the age of 13 to 19, they first time suffer from this problem. For some girls, it is just a monthly period but for some girls, menstruation is a curse. They might get admitted to the hospital for that reason (menstruation). There are some names for the menstrual problem in girls such as premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea.

Few hours before menstrual/periods, many adolescent girls face various types of disorders or painful symptoms which lasts for the short period of time wherein some cases it takes 2/3 days to be in normal condition. During periods females who are suffering from this problem can have a very critical and intense situation which can affect the normal functioning of an individual and these symptoms faced by any women, girl, or adolescent is called premenstrual syndrome. In some cases, symptoms of menstruation disorder start when periods start but in some cases, the symptoms or the pain starts before the periods while in some it lasts after the periods also. 85% of the females feel some of the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome during their periods before and after too. It is measured that 40% of females feel intense symptoms during their menstrual periods that their daily life is hampered where 10% of females get disable by premenstrual syndrome.

There are many different types of premenstrual syndrome symptoms which are relatively classified as Neurologic & Vascular symptoms, psychological symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, fluid retention, eye problem and respiratory problems. The causes of premenstrual syndrome are fluctuations in the levels of progesterone & estrogen, hypoglycaemia, hyperprolactinemia, psychogenic factors, changes in carbohydrate metabolism, excessive aldosterone, and progesterone allergy and water retention by kidneys. The good thing for premenstrual syndrome patients is that premenstrual syndrome can be prevented by exercising daily, eating a balanced diet and sleeping for the required time.

Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual disorder where the female feels the intense pain and cramps during her menstrual periods. Depending on medical education, dysmenorrhea is termed as primary dysmenorrhea and secondary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea’s symptoms are felt from the time of the menstrual periods starts. In some cases, these symptoms can be felt for the lifetime of periods. Dysmenorrhea is caused because of the abnormal uterine contractions due to chemical misbalance, severe menstrual cramping where Secondary dysmenorrhea is experienced during the later stages of menstrual periods. The symptoms and causes are different for primary and secondary dysmenorrhea. Secondary Dysmenorrhea can be determined on the bases of medical conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, tumours, infections, and abnormal pregnancy.

According to medical science, the symptoms of dysmenorrhea are lower abdomen cramping and intense pain, lower back pain, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, fatigue, fainting, weakness and headaches. Females who are overweight, smoke, and have started to menstruate before turning eleven are at a higher risk of developing dysmenorrhea. Adolescent girls who drink alcohol during the menstrual period can feel intense and prolonged pain. After studying the health situations and conditions, age, cause of dysmenorrhea, and extent of the condition of the individual, corresponding treatment will be recommended. Regular exercise, abdominal massage, hot bath, vitamin supplements, and dietary modifications can help to overcome the dysmenorrhea affects.

And then lastly the Amenorrhea, it is the condition or time period in which a female individual misses her menstrual periods for more than three consecutive menstrual cycles. Amenorrhea is also broadly classified into primary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. In primary amenorrhea, the onset of menstrual periods develops. In this case, there is a high probability of late periods even if she enters puberty stage. Secondary amenorrhea is a case where periods are irregular after the time interval but not from the beginning.

Amenorrhea is caused in adolescents or any female/individual by many matters like as ovulation abnormality, eating problems, birth defects, anatomical abnormalities, malnourishment, anorexia, bulimia, pregnancy, over-exercising, thyroid problem, obesity and other medical conditions. All so after these ovulation abnormalities are a common cause for absent or irregular periods. It is all normal that an adolescent girl starts getting menstrual periods at least at the age of fifteen or sixteen. If not, anatomical abnormality, birth defect and other medical cases are the cause for amenorrhea. Adolescent girls who are involved in sports actively and are athletic have a lower body fat content because of which they have gaps in menstrual periods. Even because of the malnourishment, the body becomes unfertilized which seriously can effect on having pregnancy which means the amenorrhea patient’s body itself slows down or off downs the reproductive systems and very much disturbs the menstrual periods. Having extra fat cells in the body can interfere with the ovulation and that is why the obese female suffers from irregular menstrual periods. Amenorrhea can be treated by having dietary modifications, ovulation inhibitors and hormone treatment.